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From the perspective of system implementation and landing operation, Bifrost is a decentralized heterogeneous cross-chain system and multi-chain connector that provides liquidity for the staked assets of multiple PoS public chains. Bifrost is developed based on the Substrate framework and belongs to the Polkadot ecosystem project. It achieves business landing and continuous safe operation in the form of Polkadot and Kusama parachains, sharing the consensus security provided by Polkadot and Kusama and community users. When Bifrost provides collateral liquidity for multiple PoS public chains, the consensus security risk of these public chains was also partially transferred to Bifrost.
If the Bifrost consensus security attack cost is lower than the original PoS consensus security cost, hackers will intentionally attack the Bifrost network to complete the original PoS network attack. Only when the Bifrost consensus security is not lower than the original PoS network, the Bifrost protocol can provide staking liquidity for other PoS networks under objective conditions. Maintaining a sufficiently secure independent PoS consensus system is expensive and has a long precipitation and evolution cycle. Taking Cosmos as an example, based on the current 72% staking rate and 8.09% yield, the annual inflation rate is about 5.8%. It requires approximately 15,344,540 ATOM (approximately $83,474,302) for annual network security maintenance costs. If the ecosystem is not vibrant enough, the network utilization rate is low, the value capture ability is insufficient, and high inflation is likely to push the entire system into a death spiral.
When the PoS public chain is operated independently, the upper limit of the assets that the network can safely carry must be lower than the market value of its tokens. If the total amount of assets locked in the network exceeds the market value of its tokens, hackers will be motivated to launch an attack, leading to the loss of assets. This will not only cause the demise of the project, but also cause chain attacks on other consensus systems it supports. Therefore, the Bifrost system at the current stage does not run an independent PoS consensus network, and is prepared to operate in a parachain to share the consensus security provided by Polkadot or Kusama. Bifrost will pay a reasonable range of consensus security fees by bidding for the Polkadot Parachain slot, avoiding the high cost of running the PoS network independently, and ensuring that the assets locked in the Bifrost network are more secure, so that the Bifrost ecosystem can develop sustainably and healthily.